This publication is a classic “ceasefire reading” written by experienced intermediaries. Originally produced for an East African audience, it has since been used for training in several other locations, including Nepal and Sri Lanka. It should be noted that Julian Hottinger, Jeremy Brickhill (mentioned above) and Jan Erik Wilhelmsen are the ceasefire specialists with the most important comparative expertise in this line. The report draws on primary data to analyze local ceasefires negotiated in Syria in early 2014 and contains brief case studies on Homs, Barzeh, Mu`adamiyya, Yarmouk and other locations. It examines the dynamics that have characterized the negotiation and implementation of these local agreements and assesses the extent of their humanitarian impact and their contribution to broader political achievements. The report is not publicly available. On 3 March 1991, Iraq and the United Nations Security Council signed a ceasefire agreement after Iraq was driven out of Kuwait by US-led coalition forces during Operation Desert Storm.  Subsequently, in the 1990s, the United Nations Security Council adopted numerous resolutions calling on Iraq to disarm its weapons of mass destruction without conditions and without delay. As no peace treaty was signed after the Gulf War, the war remained in force, including an alleged attack on former US President George H. W. Bush by Iraqi agents during a visit to Kuwait;  Iraq was bombed in June 1993 in response, Iraqi troops fired on coalition aircraft patrolling Iraqi no-fly zones, US President Bill Clinton`s bombing of Baghdad in 1998 during Operation Desert Fox, and a previous US bombing of Iraq during Operation Desert Strike in 1996. The war remained in force until 2003, when American and British forces invaded Iraq and toppled Saddam Hussein`s regime from power. Reading 2: Chounet-Cambas, L.
(2011). Ceasefire negotiations: dilemmas and options for intermediaries. Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. Ceasefires come in different forms and lengths. They can be very local (Syria 2014), cover larger parts of a particular territory (the Nuba Mountains in Sudan in 2002), apply to an entire area, but to the exclusion of certain parts of the conflict (Syria 2016) or nationally and without restrictions. You`ll find concrete examples in the playlist below. A lasting ceasefire agreement, such as the one negotiated in 2002 in the Nuba Mountains of Sudan, will at least be built around the “4-2” zones. Practitioners and scientists point out that agreements that combine as much detail as possible between the following characteristics are appropriate for “simpler” implementation and are therefore more likely to consider them. Among the four key areas, ceasefire agreements can be concluded between state actors if they can even reach the stage of a global ceasefire or involve non-state actors and be “local”.
 They may be formal (usually in writing) or informal; their conditions may be public or secret.